Monday, September 4, 2017

[Porifera • 2017] Three New Species of Cladorhiza (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Cladorhizidae) from the Northeast Pacific Ocean


Cladorhiza mexicana
Lundsten, Reiswig & Austin, 2017


Abstract

Carnivorous feeding among the Cladorhizidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) was first documented in 1995. Since that time, 161 species have been described and are currently recognized in 9 genera. Cladorhiza is the most speciose genus with a global, deep-water distribution of 41 species. Here we describe three new Cladorhiza species of ‘crinorhiza’ form from the Northeast Pacific Ocean off California, USA, and the Gulf of California, Mexico, from depths of 2472–4100m. In total, 11 specimens were collected between 1969 and 2015. Video recordings from remotely operated vehicles yield additional information on habitat type, geographic distribution, and abundance for some of these species.

Keywords: Porifera, Cladorhizidae, Cladorhiza, deep-sea


FIGURE 4. Cladorhiza mexicana sp. nov.; holotype in situ before collection.

Cladorhiza mexicana sp. nov. 

Type locality. Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California, Mexico.

 Etymology. The species name, mexicana, alludes to the country where the holotype was discovered. 

Diagnosis. Crinorhiza form, parasol-shaped sponge, on long stalk and presumed basal holdfast. Three size classes of megasclere styles and three microsclere categories including tridentate unguiferate anisochelae, contort sigmancistras, and asymmetrical pseudoamphiasters.


Cladorhiza hubbsi p. nov.

Etymology. Named in honor of Dr. Carl Leavitt Hubbs, renowned ichthyologist who studied both freshwater and marine fishes and had a keen interest in zoogeography, biology, hybridization, taxonomy, ocean temperature paleo-history, and more. Dr. Hubbs had an amazingly productive career, with nearly 712 publications to his credit with considerable emphasis placed on educating the public and actively promoting conservation.

Diagnosis. Crinorhiza form, very conical, parasol-shaped sponge, on stalk of unknown true length. Three size classes of megasclere styles and three microsclere categories including tridentate unguiferate anisochelae, contort sigmancistra, and pseudoamphiaster.


Cladorhiza kensmithi sp. nov. 

Etymology. Named in honor of Dr. Kenneth L. Smith Jr. for contributions to marine biology and ecology over the course of a more than 40-year career in which he has devoted much of his expertise to studying extreme habitats, including the deep sea and polar regions, and the impacts of a changing climate on these ecosystems. 

Diagnosis. Crinorhiza form, parasol-shaped sponge, on long stalk with densely branching rhizoid. Two to four apical spermatocyst-bearing discs on short, slender stalks. Four size classes of megasclere styles including rare strongyles and two microsclere categories including tridentate unguiferate anisochelae and contort sigmancistra


 Lonny Lundsten, Henry M. Reiswig and William C. Austin. 2017. Three New Species of Cladorhiza (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Cladorhizidae) from the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa. 4317(2); 247–260. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4317.2.3


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