Sunday, May 27, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Scaphochlamys disticha (Zingiberaceae) • A New Species with Distichous Inflorescence from Peninsular Malaysia


Scaphochlamys disticha  Y.Y.Sam & H.Ibrahim

in Sam & Ibrahim, 2018

Abstract

A new species of ginger, Scaphochlamys disticha Y.Y.Sam & H.Ibrahim, sp. nov., from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia is described and illustrated; colour plates and conservation status are also provided. The species is characterised by its large inflorescence with distichously arranged floral bracts. 



Figure 1. A–G Scaphochlamys disticha: A Habit B Leafy shoots close together C Rhizome and stilt roots D Distichous leaf sheaths E Thin and broad margin of leaf sheath F Inflorescence G Flower
H–J Sklossii var. klossii H Habit I Inflorescence J Flower K Scalcicola.

Photographs A, C–D, H–K by YY Sam; B, E–G by K Imin.

Figure 2. Scaphochlamys disticha: A Habit B Inflorescence CFloral bract D First bracteole E Second bracteole F Flower G Dorsal corolla lobe H Lateral corolla lobe I Staminode J Ovary and calyx K Labellum L Stamen M Stigma N Fruit O Seed.
Drawn by MN Aidil from Sam et al. FRI 69123.

Scaphochlamys disticha Y.Y.Sam & H.Ibrahim, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Similar to S. klossii Holttum var. klossii by its ascending rhizomes supported by fine stilt roots, leafy shoots with multiple leaves, successive shoots emerging within the leaf axil, long leaf sheath with broad and thin edges and elliptic leaf blades. The most distinct feature of S. disticha is its distichous floral bracts which are easily recognised from the spirally arranged bracts in S. klossii var. klossii. Other morphological characteristics which can be used to separate S. disticha are the spathulate bracts versus involute bracts observed in S. klossii var. klossii and smaller flowers (35–40 mm long vs. 42–50 mm long). The thick woolly hairs covering the sheath, petiole and inflorescence in S. klossii var. klossii are absent from S. disticha.

....

Distribution: Endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, Terengganu, Ulu Terengganu Tambahan Forest Reserve.

Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the Latin ‘disticha’ referring to the distichously arranged floral bracts.

Habitat and ecology: The plants are found in lowland dipterocarp forest growing abundantly in the bright but shady conditions provided by the canopy openings. A search of the surrounding area found the population to be highly localised, restricted to the mid slope of the valley at Sekayu Waterfall. Scaphochlamys disticha flowers gregariously after the northeast monsoon ends in February–March.


 Yen Yen Sam and Halijah Ibrahim. 2018. Scaphochlamys disticha (Zingiberaceae), A New Species with Distichous Inflorescence from Peninsular Malaysia. PhytoKeys. 99: 85-92. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.99.22287

[Botany • 2018] Taxonomic Status of Begonia promethea (sect. Petermannia, Begoniaceae) in Borneo


Begonia promethea Ridl.

 in Kiew, Julia, Ling, et al., 2018.
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 70(1)

Abstract
The rediscovery of Begonia promethea Ridl. for the first time since its description in 1906 led to the discovery that the later described B. beccarii Warb. is synonymous with it and that it belongs in Begonia sect. Petermannia. It is a rare, endangered species known only from three localities, two locations from the Kuching Division, Sarawak, Malaysia and another one from West Kalimantan, Indonesia. A detailed, illustrated description and a distribution map of Begonia promethea are provided. We suggest an IUCN conservation category of EN B2ab(iii). Lectotypes for both names are designated.

Keywords. Begonia beccarii, conservation, Sarawak, taxonomy  

Fig. 2. Habit of Begonia promethea Ridl. in Bengkayang, West Kalimantan. [WEKBOE 185.]
 Photo: A. Randi

Begonia promethea Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 46: 259 (1906). 
– TYPE: Borneo, Sarawak, Bau District, Buso, Bukit Tundong, September 1903, ...

Begonia beccarii Warb., syn. nov., ...

....

Etymology. The meaning of the specific epithet is obscure. Prometheus was the Greek god who fashioned clay to create the first people, and who was chained to a rock to have his liver pecked out by an eagle for all eternity as a punishment for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to humanity. Ridley gives no hint as to the connection between him and this begonia, but we speculate it may be due to the isolated sandstone rocks on which the species grows, where Ridley noted he ‘could reach but few plants of it’.


R. Kiew, S. Julia, C.Y. Ling, A. Randi, D. Girmansyah and M. Hughes. 2018. Taxonomic Status of Begonia promethea (sect. Petermannia, Begoniaceae) in Borneo. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 70(1);  155–161.

[Paleontology • 2018] Bagualosaurus agudoensis • A New Dinosaur (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic of Brazil Provides Insights on the Evolution of Sauropodomorph Body Plan


Bagualosaurus agudoensis
Pretto, Langer & Schultz, 2018

Illustration: Jorge Blanco  coral.ufsm.br

Abstract
A new sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Late Triassic Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Formation), south Brazil, Bagualosaurus agudoensis gen. et sp. nov., helps to fill a morphological gap between the previously known Carnian members of the group and younger sauropodomorphs. In some aspects, the skull, lower jaw, and dental anatomy of the new taxon approaches that seen in Norian forms like Pantydraco caducus, Efraasia minor, and Plateosaurus engelhardti. On the contrary, the post-cranial skeleton is broadly reminiscent of coeval, early dinosaurs. Although not reaching the size of most Norian and younger sauropodomorphs, B. agudoensis is significantly larger than coeval forms. The new data thus suggest that modifications in skull anatomy, possibly related to more efficient herbivorous habits, appeared early in sauropodomorph evolution, along with a moderate increase in size, followed in post-Carnian times by further increase in size, accompanied by more radical changes in post-cranial anatomy.

Keywords: Candelária Sequence, Early dinosaurs, Late Triassic, Santa Maria Formation, Sauropodomorpha






SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY 

Dinosauria Owen, 1842 sensu Padian & May, 1993 
Saurischia Seeley, 1887 sensu Gauthier, 1986 
Sauropodomorpha von Huene, 1932 

Bagualosaurus agudoensis gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology The generic name is derived from the term ‘Bagual’, a term employed regionally in southern Brazil to refer to an animal or person of strong build or valour, plus ‘saurus’, Latin, meaning lizard; the specific name makes allusion to the town of Agudo, where the holotype was collected.

....

CONCLUSION: 
Bagualosaurus agudoensis represents the largest known Carnian sauropodomorph. Indeed, if the material described by Pretto et al. (2015) is regarded as a second specimen of the taxon, its body size would rival that of many other Carnian taxa (e.g. rhynchosaurs and cynodonts, at least from Brazilian faunas). Despite that, B. agudoensis is far from achieving the large body sizes of most post-Carnian sauropodomorphs. Indeed, most traits related to large body masses (such as robust hindlimbs, especially the pes) are not yet present in B. agudoensis, and most traits shared with post-Carnian sauropodomorphs seem to be related to the skull and mandible. This suggests that modification in the skull anatomy, possibly related to more efficient herbivorous habits, appeared earlier in the evolution of sauropodomorphs than their further increase in size. The discovery of Bagualosaurus agudoensis adds to the known dinosaur diversity of the Carnian. It also reinforces the idea that sauropodomorphs had an initial moment of high diversification, prior to their increase in abundance achieved during the Norian and afterwards when the group started to represent a dominant component of many paleoenvironments (Brusatte et al., 2010; Ezcurra, 2010; Langer et al., 2010; Irmis, 2011).


Representação artística da paisagem na região de Agudo no período Triássico. No centro da imagem, uma dupla de Bagualosaurus agudoensis confronta o cinodonte Trucidocynodon riograndensis . No canto inferior direito, um Hyperodapedon, réptil herbívoro do grupo dos rincossauros. Ao fundo, um grupo de cinodontes, Exaeretodon riograndensis, observa a cena.
Arte: Jorge Blanco

Flávio A. Pretto, Max C. Langer and Cesar L. Schultz. 2018. A New Dinosaur (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic of Brazil Provides Insights on the Evolution of Sauropodomorph Body Plan.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zly028.  DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly028

“Tataravô” de gigantes  coral.ufsm.br/arco/sitenovo/?p=3670  
Estudo põe mais um dinossauro na pré-história do País @estadao:   brasil.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,estudo-poe-mais-um-dinossauro-na-pre-historia-do-pais,70002323449

   

Saturday, May 26, 2018

[Ichthyology • 2018] Exostoma ericinum • A New Glyptosternine Catfish (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) from southwestern China


 Exostoma ericinum Ng, 2018
photo: Hang Zhou 


Abstract
A new species of glyptosternine catfish in the genus Exostoma is described in this study. The new species, Exostoma ericinum, is known from the upper Dayingjiang (=Taping River) drainage in southwestern China and is distinguished from congeners in having an unique combination of the following characters: 42–44 vertebrae; parallel striae on anterolateral surfaces of lips and lower surface of maxillary barbel; interorbital distance 26–31% HL; preanal length 67.7–70.5% SL; body depth at anus 10.4–12.0% SL (1.4–1.9 times in caudal peduncle depth); length of adipose-fin base 39.5–43.0% SL; lacking an incision at posterior extremity of adipose-fin base; caudal peduncle length 23.2–26.2% SL; caudal peduncle depth 5.7–7.9% SL; and caudal-fin lobes with slightly concave posterior margin.



FIGURE 2. Exostoma ericinum, paratype, ZRC 56672, 97.0 mm SL. Lateral view showing coloration in life.
Photograph: H. Zhou.


Heok Hee Ng. 2018. Exostoma ericinum, A New Glyptosternine Catfish from southwestern China (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Sisoridae). Zootaxa. 4420(3);  405-414.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4420.3.6


[Paleontology • 2018] Early Evolution of Modern Birds Structured by Global Forest Collapse at the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction


a hypothetical surviving bird lineage -- small-bodied and specialized for a ground-dwelling lifestyle -- fleeing a burning forest in the aftermath of the asteroid strike that eliminated non-avian dinosaurs and destroyed global forests.

in Field, Bercovici, Berv, et al., 2018.
Illustration: Phillip M. Krzeminski 

Highlights
• The end-Cretaceous mass extinction devastated forest habitats globally
• Tree-dwelling birds failed to persist across the end-Cretaceous extinction event
• All bird groups that survived the end-Cretaceous extinction were non-arboreal
• The early ancestors of many modern tree-dwelling bird groups were ground-dwelling

Summary
The fossil record and recent molecular phylogenies support an extraordinary early-Cenozoic radiation of crown birds (Neornithes) after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction. However, questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the survival of the deepest lineages within crown birds across the K-Pg boundary, particularly since this global catastrophe eliminated even the closest stem-group relatives of Neornithes. Here, ancestral state reconstructions of neornithine ecology reveal a strong bias toward taxa exhibiting predominantly non-arboreal lifestyles across the K-Pg, with multiple convergent transitions toward predominantly arboreal ecologies later in the Paleocene and Eocene. By contrast, ecomorphological inferences indicate predominantly arboreal lifestyles among enantiornithines, the most diverse and widespread Mesozoic avialans. Global paleobotanical and palynological data show that the K-Pg Chicxulub impact triggered widespread destruction of forests. We suggest that ecological filtering due to the temporary loss of significant plant cover across the K-Pg boundary selected against any flying dinosaurs (Avialae) committed to arboreal ecologies, resulting in a predominantly non-arboreal post-extinction neornithine avifauna composed of total-clade Palaeognathae, Galloanserae, and terrestrial total-clade Neoaves that rapidly diversified into the broad range of avian ecologies familiar today. The explanation proposed here provides a unifying hypothesis for the K-Pg-associated mass extinction of arboreal stem birds, as well as for the post-K-Pg radiation of arboreal crown birds. It also provides a baseline hypothesis to be further refined pending the discovery of additional neornithine fossils from the Latest Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene.


This illustration shows a hypothetical surviving bird lineage -- small-bodied and specialized for a ground-dwelling lifestyle -- fleeing a burning forest in the aftermath of the asteroid strike that eliminated non-avian dinosaurs and destroyed global forests.
 Illustration: Phillip M. Krzeminski


 Daniel J. Field, Antoine Bercovici, Jacob S. Berv, Regan Dunn, David E. Fastovsky, Tyler R. Lyson, Vivi Vajda and Jacques A. Gauthier. 2018. Early Evolution of Modern Birds Structured by Global Forest Collapse at the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction. Current Biology.  In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.062
What the asteroid that wiped out dinosaurs meant for birds eurekalert.org/e/8gbw via @CellPressNews @EurekAlert
When the dinosaurs died, so did forests—and tree-dwelling birds  phys.org/news/2018-05-dinosaurs-died-forestsand-tree-dwelling-birds.html via @physorg_com

[Herpetology • 2018] Sarcohyla hapsa • Systematics of the Frogs Allocated to Sarcohyla bistincta sensu lato (Cope, 1877), with Description of A New Species from Western Mexico


Sarcohyla hapsa  
Campbell, Brodie, Caviedes-Solís, De Oca, Luja, Flores-Villela, García-Vázquez, Sarker, Wostl & Smith, 2018


Abstract 
A new species of hylid frog is described from the southwestern edge of the Mexican Plateau from the states of Morelos and Mexico through Michoacán and Jalisco, reaching the Sierra Madre Occidental in Sinaloa and western Durango. The new species is part of the widespread Mexican hylid Sarcohyla bistincta (sensu amplo) complex, comprised of S. bistinctaS. pentheter, S. calthula, and S. ephemera. One subspecies of S. bistincta (labeculata) was proposed for an isolated population in Oaxaca. We restrict the group’s nominal species, S. bistincta (sensu stricto), to the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico and southward into the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero and Oaxaca. Examination of type material places S. calthula and S. ephemera in the synonymy of S. labeculata (new combination). The species allied to S. bistincta, namely, S. bistincta, S. labeculataS. pentheter, and the new species described herein, are diagnosed and described following recent suggested taxonomic changes and new available material.

Key words: Amphibia, Anura, New species, Sarcohyla bistinctaSarcohyla hapsa sp. nov., Sarcohyla labeculataSarcohyla pentheter, Taxonomy


Sarcohyla bistincta (Cope 1878) 
Standard English: Cope’s Streamside Treefrog
Spanish name: Rana Trepadora Ribereña de Cope

Sarcohyla labeculata, breeding pair, UTA A-5883 (male and UTA A-5881 (female), near Totontepec, Sierra Mixe, Oaxaca

Sarcohyla labeculata (Shannon 1951) 
Standard English: Mixe Streamside Treefrog
Spanish name: Rana Trepadora Ribereña Mixe

Sarcohyla pentheter (Adler 1965) 
Standard English: Miahuatlán Streamside Treefrog
Spanish name: Rana Trepadora Ribereña de Miahuatlán

  
An adult male Sarcohyla hapsa from the mountains of western Jalisco. 
An adult female Sarcohyla hapsa from the mountains of central Jalisco.

  
An adult male Sarcohyla hapsa from the Sierra Madre Occidental in Durango. 
A pair of Sarcohyla hapsa from the mountains of eastern Michoacán


Sarcohyla hapsa, sp. nov. 
Standard English: Northern Streamside Treefrog
Spanish name: Rana Trepadora Ribereña Norteña

Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Greek hapsis, meaning a mesh or network, in reference to the finely reticulated flank pattern of most individuals.


Jonathan A. Campbell, Edmund D. J. Brodie, Itzue W. Caviedes-Solís, Adrián N.-M. De Oca, Victor H. Luja, Oscar Flores-Villela, Uri O. García-Vázquez, Goutam C. Sarker, Elijah Wostl and Eric N. Smith. 2018. Systematics of the Frogs Allocated to Sarcohyla bistincta sensu lato (Cope, 1877), with Description of A New Species from Western Mexico. Zootaxa. 4422(3); 366–384. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4422.3.3

 

Resumen: Se describe una nueva especie de rana arborícola hylida del borde suroeste del Altiplano Mexicano de los estados de Morelos y Estado de México, hacia el oeste por Michoacán y Jalisco, Nayarit, Durango, y Sinaloa alcanzando la Sierra Madre Occidental en Sinaloa y el oeste de Durango. La nueva especie es parte de la rana hylida Sarcohyla bistincta (sensu amplo), comprendido de S. bistincta, S. pentheter, S. calthula, and S. ephemera. Una subespecie de S. bistincta (labecula) fue propuesta para una población aislada en Oaxaca. Restringimos la especie nominal del grupo S. bistincta (sensu stricto) a la region desde la Sierra Madre Oriental y hasta la Sierra Madre del Sur de Guerrero y Oaxaca. El examen de material tipo colocan a S. calthula y S, ephemera en la sinonimia de S. labeculata (nueva combinación). Las especies relacionadas a S. bistincta, específicamente, S. bistincta, S. labeculata, S. pentheter, y la nueva especie descrita en este trabajo, se diagnostican y describen de acuerdo a la nueva taxonomía propuesta y al examen de nuevo material disponible.  

[Botany • 2018] Jasminum ledangense • One New Species and Two New Records of Jasminum (Oleaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia


 Jasminum ledangense Kiew

 Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 70(1)  

ABSTRACT
 Jasminum ledangense Kiew is a new species restricted to Gunung Ledang, Johor and Jasminum carissoides Kerr and J. nervosum Lour. are new records for Malaysia. Jasminum carissoides is restricted to limestone in Kedah (Langkawi) and Perlis and also occurs in Peninsular Thailand, while a narrow-leaved form of J. nervosum is found on limestone in Kedah (Langkawi). Jasminum insularum Kerr is confirmed as a distinct species. It is extremely rare and known from just three specimens, the type from Peninsular Thailand, one from Kelantan and another from Pahang in Malaysia. Descriptions are provided for these species. 

Keywords. Gunung Ledang, small-leaved jasmines, Thailand


Fig. 2. Jasminum ledangense Kiew.
A. Habit. B. Flowering cyme. From Ong et al. FRI 75292.

Photos: Ong P.T.

Jasminum ledangense Kiew, sp. nov.

 In its narrowly lanceolate leaves with a pair of veins from the base and forming a submarginal vein with an additional 3–4 lateral veins in the upper half, in the filiform calyx teeth and star-like flowers, it resembles Jasminum nervosum but it is different in its coriaceous leaves (not membranous as in J. nervosum), 3 times longer than wide (not 2.5 times longer than wide), longer petioles 0.5–1 cm long (not 0.2–0.5 cm long), obscure venation except for the midrib prominent beneath (not conspicuous but plane above and beneath), pedicels 6–20 mm long (not 2–5 mm long), corolla tube 2–2.5 times longer than the lobes (not 3–3.5 times longer) with lobes 1.5–2 mm wide (not 2.5–3 mm wide) and fruit lobes 11–12 × 7–8 mm (not c. 6 × 4 mm). 
– TYPE: Peninsular Malaysia, Johor, Gunung Ledang, .... February 2012, Ong et al. FRI 75292 (holotype KEP; isotypes K, BKF).  
...

Distribution. Endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, known only from Gunung Ledang, Johor (formerly known as Mt Ophir, Malacca). 

Ecology. Primary hill or montane forest, from 375 m to the summit at 1140 m elevation. Gunung Ledang is a well-collected mountain peak and the fact that only four collections have been made in the last 120 years indicates that it is a very rare species. 

Etymology. Referring to its only known locality, Gunung Ledang, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia.


 R. Kiew. 2018. One New Species and Two New Records of Jasminum (Oleaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 70(1); 109–118.  

Friday, May 25, 2018

[Paleontology • 2018] Parahenodus atancensis • A New Placodont from the Upper Triassic of Spain provides New Insights on the Acquisition of the Specialized Skull of Henodontidae


Parahenodus atancensis
 de Miguel Chaves, Ortega & Pérez‐García, 2018

   DOI: 10.1002/spp2.1218 
Illustration: Eloy Manzanero  divulgauned.es

Abstract
Henodus chelyops Huene is considered to be a highly autapomorphic cyamodontoid placodont with specialized trophic adaptations relative to all the other members of Placodontia. It has been exclusively found in the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Tübingen (Germany). Here we present a partial skull identified as a new cyamodontoid placodont from the Upper Triassic of El Atance (Guadalajara Province, Spain), Parahenodus atancensis gen. et sp. nov. It is recognized as the sister taxon of H. chelyops, both taxa composing the clade Henodontidae. An emended diagnosis for H. chelyops and Henodontidae is given here. Parahenodus atancensis shares with H. chelyops several cranial characters considered until now to be autapomorphic for the latter, but it also retains some states common in most cyamodontoids. Thus, the discovery of P. atancensis provides new information on the acquisition process of the highly specialized skull of the Henodontidae.

Key words: Placodontia, Cyamodontoidea, Henodontidae, Parahenodus atancensis, El Atance.


SYSTEMATIC PALAEONTOLOGY

SAUROPTERYGIA Owen, 1860
PLACODONTIFORMES Neenan et al., 2013
PLACODONTIA Cope, 1871
CYAMODONTOIDEA Nopcsa, 1923
CYAMODONTIDA Nopcsa, 1923
HENODONTIDAE Huene, 1936

Type species. Henodus chelyops Huene, 1936.

Included species. Henodus chelyops, Parahenodus atancensis gen. et sp. nov.


Emended diagnosis. Clade of Cyamodontida characterized by the following exclusive characters: flat skull; maxillae without tooth plates but with a deep ventral longitudinal groove; palatines with a single posterior tooth plate; upper temporal fenestrae reduced to absent; parietals broad and fan-shaped; presence of contact between the jugals and the squamosals; palatines separated from one another by long pterygoids; cephalic condyle of the quadrates posteriorly expanded and abutting a ventral flange of the squamosals.

Distribution. Upper Triassic (Carnian to Norian) of Europe (southern Germany and central Spain).

Genus HENODUS Huene, 1936 
Type species. Henodus chelyops Huene, 1936.

....




FIG. 1. Skull MUPA ATZ0104, holotype of the cyamodontoid placodont Parahenodus atancensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Triassic of El Atance.
A, dorsal view. B, ventral view. C, schematic interpretation of the skull in dorsal view. D, schematic interpretation of the skull in ventral view.
Scale bars represent: 20 mm (A–D) 

Genus PARAHENODUS nov. 
Type species. Parahenodus atancensis sp. nov. 

Parahenodus atancensis sp. nov. 

Derivation of name. Para (paqa), Greek for ‘near’ or ‘beside’, implying morphological closeness to Henodus Huene, 1936; atance, from El Atance, the fossil site; and ensis, a Latin adjectival suffix meaning ‘pertaining to’.

FIG. 2. Strict consensus tree obtained from our phylogenetic analysis based on the cranial data matrix of Neenan et al. (2015) showing the position of the cyamodontoid placodont Parahenodus atancensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Triassic of El Atance. Bootstrap frequencies that exceed 50% (top) and Bremer support values (bottom) are indicated.

  


Carlos de Miguel Chaves,  Francisco Ortega and Adán Pérez‐García. 2018. A New Placodont from the Upper Triassic of Spain provides New Insights on the Acquisition of the Specialized Skull of Henodontidae.  Papers in Palaeontology.  DOI: 10.1002/spp2.1218

Describen una nueva especie de placodonto que habitó en Guadalajara durante el Triásico Superior  divulgauned.es/placodonto/ via @divulgauned


[Paleontology • 2017] Redescription of A Remarkably Large Gryposaurus notabilis (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) from Alberta, Canada


Two large raging bull gryposaurs fight for supremacy of the herd in violent clash on alluvial plains of Canada, 76 million years ago. 

 Bertozzo, Dal Sasso, Fabbri, et al., 2017. 
 Memorie della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. 43.
Illustration: Davide Bonadonna.
 cienzafacile.it 

Abstract 

 MSNM V345 is a partial skeleton of the North American hadrosaur species Gryposaurus notabilis, Lambe 1914, dis-covered in 1922 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. It was shipped in several crates to the Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano (MSNM), Italy, where it arrived in October 1958. Careless transportation during its long journey to Milan meant that the skeleton arrived extremely damaged and required heavy restoration work by MSNM staff.

A preliminary study of the specimen was conducted by Vittorio Vialli in 1960 while part of it was still under preparation. That study was followed by a more detailed, although still partial, osteological description by Giovanni Pinna in 1979. On the centennial of the species’ discovery, we decided to examine the specimen in even greater detail in order to improve knowledge on the dinosaur’s skeletal anatomy and help clarify the taxonomy of the genus.

Here, we redescribe the dinosaur’s osteology, focusing on unpublished elements, such as metapodials, phalanges, sacral vertebrae, and some caudal vertebrae, recently discovered to be located at the MSNM. Isolated appendicular elements found at the same quarry and tentatively referable to other individuals of the same taxon or to other dinosaur species are also briefly mentioned. Histological analysis of a core obtained from the femur revealed that it was made of fibrolamellar bone with a high number of Haversian systems. The presence of an external fundamental system indicates that the individual was fully adult at the moment of death.

Of note, the skeletal remains present with traces of at least four pathological conditions: a cavity in the predentary is speculated to be the result of osteomyelitis; the fifth dorsal vertebra is fused to the left rib through a overgrowth of bone, and is interpreted as osteosclerosis subsequent to a fracture; the neural spine of the 26th caudal vertebra is fractured and healed, and the centrum has a strap of bone growing up to the side of the preceding centrum, explainable as idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

A review of the skeletal reconstructions of the genus is also presented, followed by a summary of the skin remains and remarks on other anatomical traits. Altogether, the new data obtained on MSNM V345 have allowed us to present a more accurate and up-to-date skeletal reconstruction and in vivo restoration of G. notabilis.

Keywords: Hadrosauridae, Cretaceous, osteology, palaeopathology, anatomical illustration. 





Two large raging bull gryposaurs fight for supremacy of the herd in violent clash on alluvial plains of Canada, 76 million years ago. Digital painting by Davide Bonadonna.

 Nelle piane alluvionali del Canada, 76 milioni di anni fa, due grossi maschi bellicosi di griposauro danno vita a un violentissimo scontro per la supremazia all’interno del branco. Illustrazione digitale e di Davide Bonadonna

Reconstruction of Gryposaurus based on specimen MSNM V345.
drawing: Marco Auditore.

CONCLUSIONS
Specimen MSNM V345 is a large, robust individual of Gryposaurus notabilis. Our re-examination of all its bones housed at the MSNM has allowed us to revise previous estimates on the completeness of the skeleton, which now reaches 32.68% (39.54% when taking into account the hid-den cranial bones, and 48.37% when duplicating existing counterlateral elements). The skull of MSNM V345 is one of the largest known for Gryposaurus. Our recalculation of the size of the skeleton, which takes into account the spaces occupied in vivo by intervertebral and epiphyseal cartilage, gives us an overall length of 800 cm in a neutral pose and a height at the hip of 315 cm. The osteology of the individual shows features related to other G. notabilis specimens: a dorsoventrally narrow orbit, infratemporal fenestra twice higher than wide, a well-developed nasal arch, wide and irregular ventral embayment of the jugal, a long and narrow quadratojugal, a predentary with nine large denticles placed asymmetrically, and a tall neural spine on the second caudal vertebra.

The advanced ontogenetic age of the skeleton – which likely belonged to a senile individual – is corroborated by palaeohistological analysis showing the presence of EFSs and several generations of Haversian systems in a femur, indicative of a specimen that was fully adult at time of death.

Finally, this individual was affected by several skele-tal disorders. The predentary bears a large, central fora-men located in the caudomedian plane of the bone. The histology of this anomaly reveals the presence of large resorption cavities and a randomised pattern of osteocytes, indicators of osteomyelitis. The transverse process of dorsal vertebra 5 is fused with the proximal region of the rib, affected by an abnormal overgrowth of bone tissue. CT-scanning of this vertebra indicates hyper-trophied osteosclerosis likely consequent to traumatic fracture. The caudal vertebrae 25 and 26 had their cen-tra fused together, with that of vertebra 25 broken into two halves. CT-scanning indicates that this condition might represent skeletal hyperostosis or haemangioma.

Gryposaurus notabilis is one of the first hadrosaurs depicted for the general audience. Nevertheless, it is not as popular as other duck-billed dinosaurs, such as EdmontosaurusParasaurolophus, or Corythosaurus. We have proposed new skeletal and in vivo restorations using the anatomical data obtained from our analysis.

  


Filippo Bertozzo, Cristiano Dal Sasso, Matteo Fabbri, Fabio Manucci and Simone Maganuco. 2017.  Redescription of A Remarkably Large Gryposaurus notabilis (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) from Alberta, Canada. Memorie della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. 43.

[Entomology • 2018] Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Oodera Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae, Cleonyminae), with Description of Ten New Species


Head (frontal)
 Oodera ahoma (Mani & Kaul) b O. circularicollis sp. n. c O. felix sp. n.
O. fidelis sp. n. e O. florea sp. n. O. formosa (Giraud)
O. gracilis Westwood b O. heikewernerae sp. n. c O. hoggarensis Hedqvist 

in Werner & Peters, 2018.
  [Scale bars: 1 mm.]   DOI:  10.3897/jhr.63.12754 

Abstract
The world species of Oodera Westwood, 1874 (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae: Cleonyminae: Ooderini) are revised. We examined 115 specimens of this rarely collected genus and based on morphological characters assign 110 specimens to 20 recognised species, of which the following ten are described as new: Oodera circularicollis sp. n. (Morocco), O. felix sp. n. (Central African Republic), O. fidelis sp. n. (Vietnam), O. florea sp. n. (Thailand), O. heikewernerae sp. n. (Botswana and South Africa), O. leibnizi sp. n. (Papua New Guinea, Malaysia and Phillippines), O. mkomaziensis sp. n. (Tanzania), O. namibiensis sp. n. (Namibia), O. niehuisorum sp. n. (Egypt and Israel), and O. srilankiensis sp. n. (Sri Lanka). Oodera monstrum Nikol’skaya, 1952, syn. n., is synonymised under O. formosa (Giraud, 1863). Five specimens could not be assigned to species and are treated as Oodera sp. Redescriptions are provided for all previously described valid species. Oodera albopilosa Crosby, 1909 is excluded from Oodera and transferred to Eupelmus Dalman, 1820 (Eupelmidae) as E. albopilosa (Crosby, 1909) n. comb. Oodera rufimana Westwood, 1874 and O. obscura Westwood, 1874 are treated as nomina dubia because we were unable to locate type specimens and the original descriptions are not sufficiently informative to clarify the taxonomic status of these names. Several specimens from North America are identified as introduced specimens of the European species O. formosa. We provide images and diagnostic characters for all 20 included species and an identification key to species.

Keywords: Taxonomy, parasitoid wasps, identification key, new species


Figure 5. Head (frontal) I a Oodera ahoma (Mani & Kaul) (imaged specimen: OAh01, holotype) b O. circularicollis sp. n. (OCi01, holotype) c O. felix sp. n. (OFe01, holotype)
d O. fidelis sp. n. (OFi01, holotype) e O. florea sp. n. (OFl01, holotype) f O. formosa (Giraud) (OFo03).

Figure 6. Head (frontal) II a O. gracilis Westwood (imaged specimen: OGr01) b O. heikewernerae sp. n. (OHe01, holotype) c O. hoggarensis Hedqvist (OHo02, paratype)
d O. leibnizi sp. n. (OLe03, paratype) e O. longicollis (Cameron) (OLo01) f O. madegassa Bouček (OMad01, holotype).
Scale bars: 1 mm.

Figure 17. Geographic distribution of the genus Oodera. Countries from which Oodera was recorded are highlighted in dark grey. Stars indicate record localities. Record localities of O. pumilae Yang and O. regiae Yang are not exact but placed in the centre of the respective Chinese province from which the species was recorded.


 Jennifer Werner and Ralph S. Peters. 2018. Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Oodera Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae, Cleonyminae), with Description of Ten New Species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 63: 73-123.  DOI:  10.3897/jhr.63.12754